Sunday, February 23, 2020
Payroll System and Internal Control - Essay Example aintain a list of the names, addresses and necessary information among others especially of the employees working within the organisation (Lambert, 2005). The importance of maintaining a payroll system lies in keeping a track upon certain specific data especially of the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ which include their salary and incentive structure, pension plans, union membership status and taxes along with the method of calculation regarding the pays of the employees by taking into consideration the available employee data. Payroll systems are mainly implemented by using different software in order to calculate the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ net pay from various deductions according to the norms and policies of a particular organisation (Mohammed & et. al., 2007) In relation to payroll system, payroll records are usually used or implemented in order to keep a proper record regarding the hours worked by the employees in an organisation on a monthly basis. Apart from the payroll records, a payroll ledger is also used in relation to payroll system. A payroll ledger is a kind of a table that shows the calculated pays of the employees along with the month in which they earned the pay (Mohammed & et. al., 2007) In relation to payroll system, an internal control can be regarded as Ã¢â¬Å"a procedure of control and checking various levels of management in terms of financial and non-financial actions or operations of a particular business within an organisation in order to make sure that the business actions or operations are conducted successfullyÃ¢â¬ (Trenerry, 1999). The internal control of a business within an organisation also focuses towards the procedure of management decision making along with meeting all appropriate legal procedures that eventually leads towards the improvement of any business organisations (Hightower, 2008). The importance of internal control within an organisation lies in a few of the factors that include attaining successful business operations, controlling the business
Friday, February 7, 2020
Media Ethics - Essay Example No one seems to be protected and the number of victims of violence, and in so many cases murder continues every year. This calendar year is no different and so will the forthcoming years unless actions will be done, both locally and on a global level. The following stories are just some of the many that remain prevalent in so many countries. And to think that all are well within barely two months after the Ã¢â¬Ëball droppedÃ¢â¬â¢ so to speak on the New Year. One cannot help but be appalled and flabbergasted as to the number and parallelism of these stories. Indeed, no good deed remains unpunished. Maybe there is much truth in what Pablo Neruda refers to as, Ã¢â¬Å"the whore freedom, the land with no overcoatÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"InjusticeÃ¢â¬ ). The list begins with Basil Ibrahim Faraj, a cameraman of the Palestinian Media and Communication Company who was killed last January 7, 2009 in Gaza. Faraj and companyÃ¢â¬â¢s car was not the target but was caught in between the attack. Ando Ratovonirina from Madagascar was working for Radio TÃ ©lÃ ©vision Analamanga (RTA), witnesses claim he was shot by presidential guards, nonetheless, while in a demonstration against the administration in Antananarivo covering the story. The Associated Press (AP) reports 167 injured and 25 killed in the incident. Another radio and newspaper reporter, Uma Singh, was attacked by 15 people who stabbed Singh to death last January 11 in Janakpur, Nepal. Local journalists and other groups believe that those with motive for the murder include Maoist workers who she openly condemns for her father and brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s kidnapping and murder back in 2006. Freelance correspondent and Ã¢â¬ËNovaya GazetaÃ¢â¬â¢ contributor Anastasiya Baburova was shot an d killed by someone in a ski mask last January 19. She was with Stanislav Markelov, a human rights lawyer after the latter had just given a press conference. The attacker shot at Markelov execution-style according to reports in the prosecutor-generals office. Apparently,
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Narrowing Down of Gender Biased Disparities in US Federal and Civil services Essay Narrowing Down of Gender Biased Disparities in US Federal and Civil Services The early 1970s witnessed a male dominant workforce in all departments of civil and federal services in the United States. Authoritative positions were held mainly by men. Ã¢â¬ËSex Based Glass Ceilings in the US State Level Bureaucracies 1987-1997Ã¢â¬â¢ written by Margaret Reed et al. (2004) has relevant data from the US Government offices. The authors analyzed the data and concluded that this gap has narrowed down significantly with women breaking the impediments in the glass ceilings prevalent in administrative positions. According to him, the glass ceiling is not that pervasive in distributive and regulatory agencies but very less pervasive in the services of redistributive agency which will be discussed later in this paper. Mani (2004) in his Ã¢â¬ËWomen in the Federal Civil ServiceÃ¢â¬â¢, analyses more about the influence of veterans preference to see if it stands as an impediment to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s career in the federal civil services. Lewis and Oh (2008) exclusively discuss about the male-female pay differences in their paper Ã¢â¬ËA Major Difference? Ã¢â¬â¢ They deal effectively with pay disparities. For this, they makes an in depth study of different major subjects in colleges that brings a change in salary and administrative positions. He uses samples of different races, whites and blacks, and Hispanics in his analysis and proves that there is no disparity among races in terms of salary or status. All the three papers propose a common positive trend in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s education level, salary, status, higher positions in civil and federal workforce. Each paper is exclusive in describing a unique sub-topic with significance and data analysis. Women are close to men in almost all departments thereby bridging the gender gap between 1990 and 2000. All the three papers with data show the disparities and gender differences between 1970 and 1990 that gradually reduced and the percentage variation is insignificant in the year 2000. Reed et al. Ã¢â¬â¢s (2004) paper can be considered as a main discussion of the topic where he touches upon womenÃ¢â¬â¢s employment, pay disparities and impediments to glass ceilings. Reed (2004) brings about the discussion on glass ceiling and glass wall that existed in three different agencies. The other two papers: Ã¢â¬ËA Major Difference? Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËWomen in the Federal Civil ServiceÃ¢â¬â¢ can be considered as a supportive or additional research without much contradictory opinions though each paper touches upon distinctive subtopics distinctively. The data analysis in all the three papers almost arrive at the same percentage of variation between men and women in salary, education in civil and federal workforce. All the three essays borrowed data from government offices like U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC national (data set for Sex Based Glass Ceilings in the US State Level Bureaucracies 1987-1997Ã¢â¬â¢), US Office of Personnel Management (data set for Ã¢â¬Ë Major DifferenceÃ¢â¬â¢) and US Office of Personnel Management (data set for Ã¢â¬ËWomen in the Federal ServicesÃ¢â¬â¢) This data is useful in performing analysis of employees by job category, functional policy areas, salary levels, sex, number of male-female veterans, and male-female non-veterans. This data is not available in the open. It has been provided to the authors on request by the respective universities. This data helps to conduct Significance Test, Logistic Regression tests, Chi-square test and t test to come up with statistical evidence supporting their statements. Reed et al. (2004) use this data to arrive at ceiling ratios while discussing about pay disparities between male and female. When we discuss about gender disparities, or womenÃ¢â¬â¢s impediments to acquire managerial positions, a common opinion is cited as a drawback in women: they are lack of commitment to affirmative action, lack of developmental assignments, gender biased organization cultures and stereotypes, outright discrimination, assuming leadership roles and welfare composition (Reed et al. 2004). Mani (2004) is also of the same view when he discusses about the reason for gender wage gap. According to him, sex discrimination in hiring and promotions, shortcomings in public policies and social changes played a major role between 1970 and 1990. While discussing pay disparities and acquiring higher positions that remain in disfavor of women, we need to consider that women were in the habit of selecting arts and social subjects in colleges that relatively fetched lower salary and lower administrative positions compared to men who were in the habit of selecting computer science, business and other professional studies. The second factor is that women are mostly connected with familial tie-ups and involved in childbearing, preferring to travel less, etc. automatically kept them away from competing with men for parity in pay or the highest positions in administrative levels. In 1990s, the above-said factors did not stand in the way of women to keep them away from competition. Many women started choosing professional colleges and decided to work in areas where men alone where dominant. Education played a major role in bridging the gap between men and women in pay disparities and higher positions in administrative levels. However, reaching top most authoritative levels was decided on various other factors that led to the disappointment of women. The percentage of gap un-bridged can be considered as due to the shortcomings in public policies and social changes as suggested by Mani (2004). Lewis and Oh (2008) in his exclusive study on pay differences, also attributes the unexplainable gaps in pay disparities to sexual discrimination and difference in government treatment of apparently compatible men and women. All three studies agree that this kind of partial treatment to women has reduced significantly and women are well placed in terms of education, pay, and administrative positions in the late 1990s. The percentage of development in every decade from 1970 is shown through analysis of data. Mani (2004) analyzes the influence of veterans in the civil life to see if it stands as an impediment to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s opportunity of becoming a top level managers. Earlier in 1970s and 1980s there was considerable reason to believe that veterans had the advantage in federal civil service over non-veterans. The case started reversing in the 1990s with non- veterans getting more salaries and more job advantages. This is because, the women came stronger in studies in all departments. The growing number of women in public and their demands were heeded and respected by the government. The impediments came to a halt with the implementation of Equal Pay Act. Besides, George Bush signed Civil Rights acts of 1991 which allowed women to challenge unfavorable decisions in the bureaucracy and in the courts. Mani (2004) has ultimately concluded his views on veterans and their changing state is in the civil society with time. He proves with the empirical data that veterans no longer remain as an impediment for women in obtaining success in the civil and federal positions. Reed (2004) raises the question of women and their under representation as institutionalized democratic practices when it comes to high level positions. He used two models (i) socio-psychological model that emphasizes the importance of organizational culture that exclude women, and (ii) the systemic model that focuses on the distribution of power and opportunities available to women. Unlike Lewis and Oh (2008), and Mani et al. (2004), Reed (2004) gets into details of three different agencies and the opportunities and positions held by women in them. Regulatory agencies such as police are considered to be a male dominant workforces. Obviously, the presence of glass ceilings is more visible here. The redistributive agency includes management of public welfare programs, rehabilitation, public health services etc that involve more service related jobs where women are appointed traditionally at various levels. The glass ceilings are less pervasive in top administrative positions in redistributive agency. These disparities stated by Reed (2004) are narrowed down in 1990s. Distributive agencies involve construction, repair and administration of bridges, community development, etc in which men use to be dominant. The authors clearly observe the presence of glass wall and an impervious glass ceiling to get into top level management positions. Lewis and Oh (2008) do not segregate in detail, the three agencies via regulatory, distributive and redistributive agencies and so failed to categorize women where their representation, for example departments like police protection, fire, dept, etc was minimum. Without these information, one does not get to know that women are doing fairly well to reach management positions in redistributive agencies. From all the three papers, we understand that there is an increase in percentage of women in all positions of workforce. The empirical data suggests that the percentage increase is gradual from 1970 through the years and in 1995, women were earning about 89% of salary compared to men. Women too started obtaining higher degrees from colleges. Their presence was seen in many upper management positions. However women have not advanced into the highest and most prestigious positions in organizations. According to Reed (2004), the government is becoming creative in implementing strategies to reduce the gender gap but these efforts are not uniformly distributed in all the states. Many women, about 3 million, as teachers, are not included in the data considered for analysis. This is a significant population that chose teaching profession for convenience and so the percentage of variation in disparities between men and women could have been improved if this work force is distributed in other civilian jobs. The proportion of women in various jobs determines various other factors. Mani (2004) has disclosed the veterans and their status in the civil services after the post Vietnam war. His paper helps to understand how the early veterans without much education levels happened to claim up the ladder in civilian positions. We also come know of the rigorous training the veterans possessed to meet the requirements once they come out to the civil life. However, at a later stage, the non-veterans had the advantage over veterans by virtue of their higher education, experience in civil environment and the change of law that preferred veterans in selection procedures. The transition is shown with the help of data available from the U. S. Office of Personal Management Central Personal Data File (OPM CPDF). Comparison among male veterans, male non-veterans, female veterans, female non-veterans with and without considering sex aspect give a clear picture of preferences and impediments over the decades. The scenario in 1995 shows that the disparities among all the four groups have been settled in such a way that one group does not hinder the prospect of the other group while competing for civilian jobs and in promotions. There was a significant difference in salary between men and women after all the analysis conducted by Mani (2004). Like in other papers, Mani (2004) too agrees with sex discrimination, the shortcomings in the public policies and social changes that impact womenÃ¢â¬â¢s career. But his opinion is slightly different compared to the other two: after 1998, there was still occupational segregation and salary disparities between men and women. The other two papers showed that much of the gender gap is narrowed down around 1999, whereas Mani (2004) still shows differences that requires rectification from the government side. All the three papers with data and analysis reveal the changes in social and cultural changes through the history of United States. All the three papers used more or less the similar data borrowed from the government departments. This can be considered as a major drawback in the results obtained. If each paper used a different data from different sources to conduct statistical analysis, it would have been more appealing. All the three papers do not consider or omit a few factors evenly while doing the analysis. For example, the 3 million teachers (Reed, 2004) avoided in one paper is a wise decision which is not found in the case of other two papers. All the three papers are trying to arrive at showing the percentage of gap narrowing down in disparities between male and female without considering similar factors in the analysis. This cannot be taken strongly for absolute results. However, the data from the government sources and its utilization in analyzing the subject to provide with statistics at various levels certainly convince the readers that there is improvement in lessening of glass walls and ceilings, equality in pay and acquiring top level management positions in the civil and federal workforce. References Lewis, B. Oh, S. S. , (2008). A Major Difference? Fields of Study and MaleÃ¢â¬âFemale Pay Differences in Federal Employment. Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University, Atlanta. Mani, B. G. (2004). Women in the Federal Civil Service: Career Advancement, VeteransÃ¢â¬â¢ Preference, and Education. Reid, M. (2004). Sex-based Glass Ceilings in US State-Level Bureacracies, 1987-1991. Administration and Society.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The movie Ã¢â¬Å"Ordinary PeopleÃ¢â¬ was a very entertaining and educational movie. It looked into the dynamics of families and showed the different parts and dependencies. It also looked into a type of client/therapist relationship and how it evolved over time. The discussion below will attempt to explore deeper into these aspect of the film. Throughout the film a focus on family and the dynamics is prominent. A traumatic event, the loss of a son, brother, and friend, has influenced the Jarrett greatly. Due to the circumstances in which Conrad, a severely depressed teenager and the main character, was present during the death of his brother, feelings of guilt had built up in this young man. A great deal of stress and tension is built between the family members because of this tragic accident. Here is where the concept of, change in one part of the familial system reverberates through out other parts. (Duty, 2010) The relationship between the Conrad and his mother become even more absent because, in the film it is presented to show that the mother blames and has not forgiven Conrad for the death of his brother Buck. Six months after the death of his brother Conrad attempts suicide with razors in the bathroom of his home. His parents commit him to a psychiatric hospital and eight months later, he is trying to resume his Ã¢ â¬Å"oldÃ¢â¬ life. Conrad is socially withdrawn from his friends because of all he has experienced as well as the fact that he was held back in school due to missing so many days. The importance of his family and support is validated here. When looking at one of the most important challenges facing families today, the challenge of instilling Ã¢â¬Å"in its members a sense of belonging while also allowing members to individuateÃ¢â¬ is s... ...t it does not exist. The rapport and friendship built throughout this movie is vital to the success of the therapy exhibited here. This is a great example of Gestalt therapeutic approach and helps to identify most of the techniques incorporated. The techniques and ways of gently confronting but pushing a client all the way through are very beneficial to each viewer of this film. Works Cited Duty, G. (2010, December 10). Family Systems Therapy. Lecture presented at Principles of Counseling Class Notes, Bethany. Miller, F. C. (1999, September). Using the Movie Ordinary People to Teach Psychodynamic Psychotherapy With Adolescents -- Miller 23 (3): 174 -- Acad Psychiatry. Academic Psychiatry. Retrieved December 10, 2010, from http://ap.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/23/3/174 Redford, R. (Director). (1980). Ordinary people [Motion picture on DVD
Monday, January 13, 2020
Dear headmaster, My choir and I left Britain, to get away from the nuclear war. Unfortunately, our plane crashed on some deserted island. The only survivors we're me, my choir, and also these other boys named Ralph and Piggy. Our time here has been a disaster, due to Ralph's leadership skills. Knowing me, I am a perfect leader. I have the. strongest and bravest qualities. I know how to lead and take initiative, like i have done with our choir. Although the leadership role was given to Ralph. Instead I am the leader of our choir, in which we are in charge of hunting. I am best hunting anyways because i am the strongest one here.On the first night, the group supposedly saw a beast. I personally don't believe that their was a beast. The group are just a bunch of wimps, especially piggy. For someone who is so fat and large, he get scared very easily. Then we had made a fire on the peak of a mountain for a signal. We were all designated to keep that fire from expanding. Although I had tha t duty, my main priority was to hunting. Anyways I wasn't the only one who should be watching the fire. Therefore I went out along with the choir to go hunt for a wild pig. Supposedly, I was neglecting the fire, when Ralph knew my main priority was to hunting. he fire got out of hand and I was repremanded by our hipocritical leader. I really don't like our leader, therefore I made my own group. My group and I are dedicated to finding and capturing a boar. We are like an army trying to capture a country. It would be helpful if you can send us a sword just like the picture on the back side. First of all, it will be very useful in cutting materials and hunting. Also since im the leader of our new group, It shows that I am the most equip and that I am the strongest. Thank you for the your attention on my request. Sincerely, jack
Saturday, January 4, 2020
A nucleoside diphosphate and a free phosphate molecule are formed from the reaction. Therefore, this reaction can proceed in either direction and can be illustrated by the following chemical equation: ADPÃ +Ã Ã¢ââ"Ã Ã¢â âÃ ATPÃ +Ã H2O The process of cellular respiration allows ATP molecules to be made. Therefore, living cells can access this energy by breaking up these bonds. This same energy is made available to other cells through the transportation of ATP molecules to the cells. Sometimes it is not possible to transfer the entire ATP molecule. Therefore, the phosphate group is conveyed to another molecule, which then becomes phosphorylated, and can liberate energy by releasing the phosphate molecule. It is important to be conversant with all the steps that lead to the generation of ATP in order to comprehend the effect of rotenone on cellular respiration. The Process of Cellular Respiration The initial step in cellular respiration is glycolysis where glucose, a six-carbon molecule, is changed into two three-carbon molecules known as pyruvic acid. The initial step involves the conversion of glucose into glucose-6-phosphate, which is catalyzed by the enzyme hexokinase. Glucose-6-phosphate is then converted to fructose-6-phosphate under the influence of phosphoglucoisomerase. We will write a custom essay sample on Cellular respiration or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now The resultant fructose-6-phosphate is further phosphorylated to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Subsequently, aldolase catalyzes the breakdown of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehydes phosphate. A series of five additional reactions lead to the formation of two molecules of phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP). Pyruvate kinase then catalyzes the transfer of the phosphate groups from PEP to ADP leading to the formation of pyruvate and two molecules of ATP in addition to two water molecules and two NADH molecules. Glycolysis does not require the availability of oxygen and takes place in the cell cytoplasm. The entire glycolytic pathway consumes two molecules of ATP and generates four ATP molecules. Therefore, the net amount of energy yielded is two molecules of ATP. The chemical equation that summarizes glycolysis is as follows: Glucose + 2NAD+ + 2Pi + 2ADP Ã¢â â 2Pyruvate + 2NADH + 2 ATP + 2 H+ + 2 H2O Figure 1: The glycolytic pathway (Garrett and Grisham 427). Pyruvic acid from glycolysis undergoes oxidative decarboxylation to form acetyl CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle. A molecule of carbon dioxide and NADH are also formed. The enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is responsible for this reaction, which may take place in the cytosol or the mitochondria (Garret and Grisham 428).
Friday, December 27, 2019
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1586 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/09/21 Category Advertising Essay Type Argumentative essay Topics: Theology Essay Did you like this example? The Development of John WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Theology John Wesley deserved to receive the doctoral robe offered by Marin Luther as he successfully reconciled Ã¢â¬Å"salvation by faith aloneÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"faith without works is dead. Ã¢â¬ A review of the key events in WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s life and his developing thoughts indicates that it was a process that took a lifetime to achieve. Thus, I am left to wonder whether a doctoral robe would be sufficient recognition for such a monumental achievement. To properly address this issue, a survey of WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s theological formation is in order. WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s journals suggest that he was tossed Ã¢â¬Å"by the winds of doctrineÃ¢â¬ to and fro as he sought to understand what one must do to be saved: Is one saved by Ã¢â¬Å"faith alone,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"works alone,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"faith and works alone? Ã¢â¬ Albert Outler provides a summary of WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s initial understandings in WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s own words (pp. 44-50). Wes ley apparently started with the understanding that there should be a good blend of faith and works (p. 44), but soon fell under the spell of Calvin and Luther, who argued that one is saved by faith alone (p. 45. ) He climbed out of this boggy hole with the help of certain English writers (Id. WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement at Oxford with the Ã¢â¬Å"Holy ClubÃ¢â¬ demonstrates that Wesley was initially of the mind that Ã¢â¬Å"faith without works is dead. Ã¢â¬ (Outler, p. 8) The Holy Club was devoted to Ã¢â¬Å"systematic Bible study, mutual discipline in devotion, and frequent communion. Ã¢â¬ (Id. ) In addition, its members were devoted to feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, visiting those that were sick, and visiting those that were in prison. (Handout, John WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s letter to Mr. Richard Morgan, the father of the young man that died, dated Oct. 18, 1732). This group was dedicated to doing good, communicating the gospel, and observing fasts. (Id. ) In 1725 at the a ge of 23, Wesley experienced Ã¢â¬Å"a sudden focusing of [his] faith and personal commitment. Ã¢â¬ (Outler, pgs. 6-7. ) Wesley read several parts of Bishop TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s Rules and Exercises of Holy Living and Dying (p. 7). Wesley was exceedingly affected by that part which related to purity of intention and resolved Ã¢â¬Å"to dedicate all [his] life to God, all my thought and words and actions, being thoroughly convinced that there was no medium, but every part of my life (not some only) must either be a sacrifice to God, r to myself; that is, in effect, to the devil . . . .Ã¢â¬ (Id. ) Accordingly, Wesley determined that his inner spiritual life was of supreme importance and seemingly accepted that Ã¢â¬Å"faith without works is dead. Ã¢â¬ Wesleys experience of the Moravians during his fateful visit to Georgia and upon his return to England marked a key turning point in WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of faith. During a terrible storm at sea, Wesley observed that the Moravia ns set calmly singing and praying while Wesley was in fear for his life. Wesley was surprised to learn that the Moravians were not afraid of dying. Thus, he concluded that he was not yet saved: Ã¢â¬Å"I went to America to convert the Indians but, oh, who shall convert me? Ã¢â¬ (John Wesley, p. 44). Wesley arrived back in England a spiritual mess. He had been unsuccessful in accomplishing the goals of his ministry and had been forced to leave Georgia under legal duress. It was at this spiritual low point that a Moravian priest, Peter Bohler, found Wesley. Seeking spiritual direction, Wesley consulted with Bohler who recognized Wesleys misconception of faith as an intellectual assent to truth. Bowler eventually convince Wesley that faith meant a sure sense of confidence in salvation, demonstrated by (1) constant piece from a sense of forgiveness; and, (2) dominion over sin. (John Wesley, p. 65) What Wesley was missing, according to Bohler, was assurance of his salvation that comes only on an emotional (fiducia) level. Bohler stressed that faith was not just an intellectual assent that resulted in loyalty and obedience. Rather, faith is based upon trust and confidence that comes from the experience of assurance. This is what Wesley was lacking in Bohlers view. Wesley needed to experience the assurance that would move his faith from his head to his heart. He resolved to seek it unto the end, first by absolutely renouncing all dependence, in whole or part, upon my own works or righteousness Ã¢â¬â on which I had really grounded my hope of salvation. (Id. ) Thus, we see Wesley moving away from his understanding that Ã¢â¬Å"faith without works is deadÃ¢â¬ towards an understanding that Ã¢â¬Å"salvation is by faith alone. Ã¢â¬ With this understanding in mind, Wesley had is famous Ã¢â¬Å"AldersgateÃ¢â¬ experience. Hearing the words of Luthers preface to Romans, Wesley is convinced that he had the experience of assurance trust in Christ . . . assurance . . . that [Christ] had taken away my sins, even mine, and saved me from the law of sin and death. (Id. , p. 66. ) Aldersgate is a significant incident in that it helped move Wesleys understanding of faith from a solely works oriented, intellectual assent model to also including an emotive, heartfelt experience. We also find Bohlers influence in Wesleys 1738 sermon Salvation by Faith preached after Aldersgate. Contrary to his pre-Bohler view Wesley defines faith as more than a speculative, rational thing, a cold, lifeless assent, a train of ideas in the head. Ã¢â¬ (Sermons, p. 41, emphasis added. ) Instead, he asserted that faith must be a disposition of the heart. (Id. , emphasis added. ). Christian faith, he continued, is then not only an ascent to the whole gospel of Christ, but also a full reliance Ã¢â¬ ¦ trust Ã¢â¬ ¦ a sure confidence which man had in God, that through the merits of Christ his sins are forgiven, and he reconciled to the favor of God. (Id. , p. 2, italics in original, bold added for emphasis. ) Here, we see the beginning of WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s changing understanding of the nature of faith and its relationship to assurance. In his sermon, Ã¢â¬Å"The Circumcision of the Heart,Ã¢â¬ we see Wesley finding ways to work out the relationship between Ã¢â¬Å"assentÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"trust and confidenceÃ¢â¬ , two very different ideas of faith. WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s insertion years later of the words Ã¢â¬Å"not onlyÃ¢â¬ into this sermon is key evidence of WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s theological development in this regard. (Sermons, p. 26) Wesley believes that faith shapes life if one takes it seriously. Bohler says itÃ¢â¬â¢s all about the heart. Wesley was simply too formed theologically by this point in his conception of faith to agree completely with Bohler. A pivotal development in WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s successful reconciliation of Ã¢â¬Å"salvation is by faith aloneÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"faith without works is deadÃ¢â¬ comes from WesleyÃ¢â¬â ¢s reliance on 1 Cor. 3. Wesley concludes that there are degrees of faith as opposed to the all or nothing at the all image of faith. (John Wesley, p. 69. ) This reversal was a result of Wesleys inability to completely let go of the intellectual assent and practice of holiness as essentials to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s faith. In the Jan. 4, 1739 Journal entry, Wesley is even led to conclude that he has no faith because he has none of the fruits of the Spirit of Christ, he loves the world, has no joy in the Holy Ghost, and has not the peace of God. (See handout. ) Wesley sets forth in his sermon Ã¢â¬Å"The Witness of the Spirit, IIÃ¢â¬ the difference between the Ã¢â¬Å"witness of the SpiritÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"witness of our spirit. Ã¢â¬ (Sermons, Pg. 42) Wesley believed that if the fruits of faith are present Ã¢â¬âvia self-examination- this the witness of our spirit. Wesley believed it was the privilege of Christians to have this inward testimony Ã¢â¬â God speaking inside Ã ¢â¬â of what is really going on in our souls. Wesley believed that if you claimed to have the inward witness without the fruit, then you were probably confused, i. e. not really saved. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Wedding GarmentÃ¢â¬ , one of WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s last sermons, Wesley successfully puts Ã¢â¬Å"justification by faith aloneÃ¢â¬ back together with Ã¢â¬Å"holiness of Heart. Ã¢â¬ (Sermons, Pg. 560). In seeking to reunite holiness and faith, Wesley says it is the Ã¢â¬Å"holiness without which no man shall see the Lord. (From Heb. 12:14)-(Pg. 562. ) In essence, Wesley is saying that holiness is a consequence of justification. This is in accordance with the defined goal of early Methodists: To reform the nation, particularly the church (of England) and to spread scriptural holiness across the land. Wesley says that we should all be striving for Ã¢â¬Å"perfectionÃ¢â¬ and describes perfection in a letter to his brother Charles as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"By perfection, I mean the humble, gent le, patient love of God and man ruling all the tempers, words, and actions, the whole heart by the whole life. I do not include an impossibility of falling from it, either in part or in whole. Therefore, I retract several expressions in our Hymns which partly express, partly imply, such an impossibility. And I do not contend for the term sinless, though I do not object against it. Ã¢â¬ (HO, JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s letter to Charles) Wesley believed that perfection representing the receiving of all the gifts of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grace and offering them back to God through serving. The essence of WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding is found in Ã¢â¬Å"The Great PrivilegeÃ¢â¬ sermon which captures the image of breathing in and out with the Holy Spirit- the notion of the life of God in the soul of man- a divine living in the human- synergism. In summary, Wesley originally believed Ã¢â¬Å"holinessÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"worksÃ¢â¬ was needed to lead to salvation. With Aldersgate and the 1738 events, h e changes his view, and accepts justification by faith must occur first. Finally, Wesley came to realize that holiness is a consequence of justification. As such, Wesley DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "John Wesleys Theology" essay for you Create order